Supreme Court Seal
Supreme Court Seal
South Carolina
Judicial Branch

(a) Capacity. It is not necessary to aver the capacity of a party to sue or be sued or the authority of a party to sue or be sued in a representative capacity or the legal existence of an organized association of persons that is made a party, except to the extent required to show the jurisdiction of the court. When a party desires to raise an issue as to the legal existence of any party or the capacity of any party to sue or be sued or the authority of a party to sue or be sued in a representative capacity, he shall do so by specific negative averment, which shall include such supporting particulars as are within the pleaders' knowledge.

(b) Fraud, Mistake, Condition of Mind. In all averments of fraud or mistake, the circumstances constituting fraud or mistake shall be stated with particularity. Malice, intent, knowledge, and other condition of mind of a person may be averred generally.

(c) Conditions Precedent. In pleading the performance or occurrence of conditions precedent, it is sufficient to aver generally that all conditions precedent have been performed or have occurred. A denial of performance or occurrence shall be made specifically and with particularity.

(d) Official Document or Act. In pleading an official document or official act it is sufficient to aver that the document was issued or the act was done in compliance with law.

(e) Judgment. In pleading a judgment or decision of a domestic or foreign court, judicial or quasi-judicial tribunal, or of a board or officer, it is sufficient to aver the judgment or decision without setting forth matter showing jurisdiction to render it.

(f) Time and Place. For the purpose of testing the sufficiency of a pleading, averments of time and place are material and shall be considered like all other averments of material matter.

(g) Special Damage. When items of special damage are claimed, they shall be specifically stated.

(h) Libel or Slander. In pleading libel or slander it is not necessary to state in the pleading any extrinsic facts for the purpose of showing the application to the pleader of the defamatory matter out of which the action arose; but it is sufficient to state generally that the same was published or spoken concerning the pleader. In such case, the opposing party may in his answer, allege both the truth of the matter charged as defamatory, and any mitigating circumstances reducing the amount of damages and, whether he prove the justification or not, he may give in evidence the mitigating circumstances.

(i) Verification of Account. In an action on an account the pleader shall attach a verified copy of the account to the pleading, or if the items of the account are set forth in the pleading, it must be verified.


All parts of Rules 9(a) through 9(g) conform to the Federal Rules and to present State practice. Rule 9(h) was added to preserve Code §§ 15-13-760 and 15-13-770 as to pleading libel and slander. Rule 9(i) preserves Code § 15-13-710.